All research must be properly documented, giving proper credit to the original source of the information.
    The format for documenting notes and research papers used at Clarence High School conforms to the most recent edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (currently 8th edition).
    Your Works Cited list at the end of your paper is a crucial piece in your acknowledgement of the sources consulted for your research but it alone does not provide the details required by the reader of your paper in determining exactly where you got your information.  Parenthetical notes inserted into the text of your paper give the reader this information. 
    • Parenthetical Notes consist of a brief note  inserted in parentheses in the text of the paper wherever another’s words, thoughts, or ideas are presented.  These notes always point back to items listed on your Works Cited.  
    • The parenthetical note usually consists of the author’s last name and the page number the information is located on.  
    • If you don’t have an author, list the title or a shortened version of it.  
    • If no page number is available, such as on a Web site, cite by the title alone. 
    • Examples of these citation styles can be found by clicking on the Works Cited link below or on the NoodleTools website.  
    • Consult the most recent edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for details on these or any other type of citation.  Remember that these citations always refer back to your Works Cited and that your goal is to give the reader of your paper specific information on the location of any borrowed information!!
     What is Common Knowledge? 


    The ONLY time you don’t need to cite something is when the fact or idea is considered “common knowledge.”  

    These are facts or ideas that are widely known; they could be found in any source consulted on the topic. 


    Example:          Ottawa is the capital of Canada.


    Be sure that what you are considering is indeed common knowledge and NOT opinion!!!  If there is any doubt, CITE YOUR SOURCE!!


    ** See Mr. Johnston with any questions regarding Works Cited or Parenthetical Notes! **