• Depression

    Signs of Depression:

    Table 1 summarizes some of the more common signs of depression that may warrant consideration, particularly if several signs are present consistently. Many of these symptoms could easily be mistaken for behavior problems associated with academic or social difficulties, such as apathy, low performance, or uncooperativeness. It is important for school personnel to know the signs so that early identification and intervention can occur.

                              Table 1. Common Signs of Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Cognitive                                         Behavioral                                                Physiological

    "All or none thinking"                        Depressed mood                                        Psychomotor agitation

    Catastrophizing                                Social withdrawl                                         Somatic complaints

    Memory problems                             Does not participate in usual activities         Poor appetite/overeating

    Attention problems                           Shows limited effort                                    Insomnia/hypersomnia

    Internal locus of control                    Decline in self-care or personal appearance   Low energy/fatigue

    Negative view of self, world, future    Decreased work or school performance

    Automatic thinking                           Appears detached from others

    Negative affect                                Crying for no apparent reason

    Feelings of helplessness                    Inappropriate responses to events

    Feelings of hopelessness                   Irritability

    Low self-esteem                               Apathy

    Difficulty making decisions                Uncooperative

    Feels loss of control                          Suicide attempts

    Suicidal thoughts

    Information taken from the National Association of School Psychologist's website below: https://www.nasponline.org/.../Depression_Supporting_Students_at_School.pdf

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